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Operating Procedures

E2A01 (C) What is the direction of an ascending pass for an amateur satellite?

C. From south to north

E2A02 (A)What is the direction of a descending pass for an amateur satellite?

A. From north to south

E2A03 (C) What is the period of an amateur satellite?

C. The amount of time it takes for a satellite to complete one orbit

E2A04 (D)What are the receiving and retransmitting frequency bands used for Mode V/H in amateur satellite operations?

D. Satellite receiving on 144 to 148 MHz and retransmitting on Amateur bands in the range of 21 to 30 MHz

E2A05 (B)What are the receiving and retransmitting frequency bands used for Mode U/V in amateur satellite operations?

B. Satellite receiving on 435 to 438 MHz and retransmitting on 144 to 148 MHz

E2A06 (C) What are the receiving and retransmitting frequency bands used for Mode V/U in amateur satellite operations?

C. Satellite receiving on 144 to 148 MHz and retransmitting on 435 to 438 MHz

E2A07 (D)What are the receiving and retransmitting frequency bands used for Mode L/U in amateur satellite operations?

D. Satellite receiving on 1.26 to 1.27 GHz and retransmitting on 435 to 438 MHz

E2A08 (B)What is a linear transponder?

B. A device that receives and retransmits signals of any mode in a certain passband

E2A09 (D)What is the name of the effect that causes the downlink frequency of a satellite to vary by several kHz during a low-earth orbit?

D. The Doppler effect

E2A10 (A)Why may the received signal from an amateur satellite exhibit a fairly rapid pulsed fading effect?

A. Because the satellite is rotating

E2A11 (B)What type of antenna can be used to minimize the effects of spin modulation and Faraday rotation?

B. A circularly polarized antenna

E2A12 (D)How may the location of a satellite at a given time be predicted?

D. By means of the Keplerian elements for the specified satellite

E2B01 (A)How many times per second is a new frame transmitted in a fast-scan television system?

A. 30

E2B02 (C) How many horizontal lines make up a fast-scan television frame?

C. 525

E2B03 (D)How is the interlace scanning pattern generated in a fast-scan television system?

D. By scanning odd numbered lines in one field and even numbered ones in the next

E2B04 (B)What is blanking in a video signal?

B. Turning off the scanning beam while it is traveling from right to left and from bottom to top

E2B05 (D)What is the bandwidth of a vestigial sideband AM fast-scan television transmission?

D. 6 MHz

E2B06 (C) What is the standard video level, in percent PEV, for black in amateur fast scan television?

C. 70%

E2B07 (C) What is the standard video level, in percent PEV, for blanking in amateur fast scan television?

C. 75%

E2B08 (A)Which of the following is NOT a common method of transmitting accompanying audio with amateur fast-scan television?

A. Amplitude modulation of the video carrier

E2B09 (D)What is facsimile?

D. The transmission of printed pictures for permanent display on paper

E2B10 (A)What is the modern standard scan rate for a fax image transmitted by an amateur station?

A. 240 lines per minute

E2B11 (B)What is the approximate transmission time per frame for a fax picture transmitted by an amateur station at 240 lpm?

B. 3.3 minutes

E2B12 (D)What information is sent by slow-scan television transmissions?

D. Still pictures

E2B13 (C) How many lines are commonly used in each frame on an amateur slow-scan color television picture?

C. 128 or 256

E2B14 (C) What is the audio frequency for black in an amateur slow-scan television picture?

C. 1500 Hz

E2B15 (D)What is the audio frequency for white in an amateur slow-scan television picture?

D. 2300 Hz

E2B16 (B)What is the standard video level, in percent PEV, for white in an amateur fast-scan television transmission?

B. 12.5%

E2B17 (A)Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of FMTV (Frequency-Modulated Amateur Television) as compared to vestigial sideband AM television?

A. Immunity from fading due to limiting

E2B18 (B)What is the approximate bandwidth of a slow-scan TV signal?

B. 2 kHz

E2B19 (D)Which of the following systems is used to transmit high-quality still images by radio?

D. Facsimile

E2B20 (C) What special restrictions are imposed on fax transmissions?

C. They are allowed in phone band segments if their bandwidth is no greater than that of a voice signal of the same modulation type

E2C01 (A)When operating during a contest, which of these standards should you generally follow?

A. Always listen before transmitting, be courteous and do not cause harmful interference to other communications

E2C02 (B)What is one of the main purposes for holding on-the-air operating contests?

B. To enhance the communicating and operating skills of amateur operators in readiness for an emergency

E2C03 (C) Which of the following is typical of operations during an international amateur DX contest?

C. Some DX operators use split frequency operations (transmitting on a frequency different from the receiving frequency)

E2C04 (D)If a DX station asks for your grid square locator, what should be your reply?

D. Your geographic Maidenhead grid location (e.g., FN31AA) based on your current latitude and longitude

E2C05 (A)What does a Maidenhead gridsquare refer to?

A. A two-degree longitude by one-degree latitude square, as part of a world wide numbering system

E2C06 (C) During a VHF/UHF contest, in which band section would you expect to find the highest level of contest activity?

C. In the weak signal segment of the band, with most of the activity near the calling frequency

E2C07 (C) If you are in the US calling a station in Texas on a frequency of 1832 kHz and a station replies that you are in the window, what does this mean?

C. You are transmitting in a frequency segment that is reserved for international DX contacts by gentlemen's agreement

E2C08 (A)Why are received spread-spectrum signals so resistant to interference?

A. Signals not using the spectrum-spreading algorithm are suppressed in the receiver

E2C09 (D)How does the spread-spectrum technique of frequency hopping (FH) work?

D. The frequency of the transmitted signal is changed very rapidly according to a particular sequence also used by the receiving station

E2C10 (A)While participating in an HF contest, how should you attempt to contact a station calling CQ and stating that he is listening on another specific frequency?

A. By sending your full call sign on the listening frequency specified

E2C11 (A)When operating SSB in a VHF contest, how should you attempt to contact a station calling CQ while a pileup of other stations are also trying to contact the same station?

A. By sending your full call sign after the distant station transmits QRZ

E2C12 (B)In North America during low sunspot activity, signals from Europe become weak and fluttery across an entire HF band two to three hours after sunset, what might help to contact other European DX stations?

B. Switch to a lower frequency HF band because the MUF has decreased

E2D01 (B)What does CMD: mean when it is displayed on the video monitor of a packet station?

B. The TNC is in command mode, ready to receive instructions from the keyboard

E2D02 (A)What is a Packet Cluster Bulletin Board?

A. A packet bulletin board devoted primarily to serving a special interest group

E2D03 (C) In comparing HF and 2-meter packet Operations, which of the following is NOT true?

C. HF packet is limited to Amateur Extra class amateur licensees; 2-meter packet is open to all but Novice Class amateur licensees

E2D04 (C) What is the purpose of a digital store and forward on an Amateur satellite?

C. To store messages in an amateur satellite for later download by other stations

E2D05 (B)Which of the following techniques is normally used by low-earth orbiting digital satellites to relay messages around the world?

B. Store and forward

E2D06 (B)What is the common 2-meter APRS frequency?

B. 144.39 MHz

E2D07 (A)Which of the following digital protocols does APRS use?

A. AX.25

E2D08 (D)Which of the following types of packet frames is used to transmit APRS beacon data?

D. Unnumbered Information frames

E2D09 (D)Under clear communications conditions, which of these digital communications modes has the fastest data throughput?

D. 300-baud packet

E2D10 (C) How can an APRS station be used to help support a public service communications activity, such as a walk-a-thon?

C. An APRS station with a GPS unit can automatically transmit information to show the station's position along the course route

E2D11 (D)Which of the following data sources are needed to accurately transmit your geographical location over the APRS network?

D. All of these choices are correct

E2E01 (B)What is the most common method of transmitting data emissions below 30 MHz?

B. FSK (frequency-shift keying) of an RF carrier

E2E02 (A)What do the letters FEC mean as they relate to AMTOR operation?

A. Forward Error Correction

E2E03 (C) How is Forward Error Correction implemented?

C. By transmitting extra data that may be used to detect and correct transmission errors

E2E04 (A)If an oscilloscope is connected to a TNC or terminal unit and is displaying two crossed ellipses, one of which suddenly disappears, what would this indicate about the observed signal?

A. The phenomenon known as selective fading has occurred

E2E05 (D)What is the name for a bulletin transmission system that includes a special header to allow receiving stations to determine if the bulletin has been previously received?

D. AMTEX

E2E06 (C) What is the most common data rate used for HF packet communications?

C. 300 bauds

E2E07 (B)What is the typical bandwidth of a properly modulated MFSK16 signal?

B. 316 Hz

E2E08 (B)Which of the following HF digital modes can be used to transfer binary files?

B. PACTOR

E2E11 (D)What is the Baudot code?

D. The International Telegraph Alphabet Number 2 (ITA2) which uses five data bits

E2E12 (C) Which of these digital communications modes has the narrowest bandwidth?

C. PSK31